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By Y. Nafalem. Washington State University. 2018.

If fertilization does not occur generic 10 mg prednisone with mastercard, the corpus luteum begins to degenerate as estrogen and progesterone levels decline discount prednisone 5mg. These symptoms usually occur about 5 days after the decline in hormones and include nervous tension, irritability, headaches, breast tenderness, and a feeling of depression. At this time, the full-term fetus is usually posi- Pregnancy tioned head down within the uterus. It increases greatly in size Labor and Childbirth and muscle mass; houses the growing placenta, which nourishes the embryo-fetus; and expels the Labor is the physiological process by which the fetus after gestation. The first is the stage of dilation, canal elongates as the uterus rises in the pelvis. The which begins with uterine contractions and termi- mucosa thickens, secretions increase, and vascular- nates when there is complete dilation of the cervix ity and elasticity of the cervix and vagina become (10 cm). The last stage is the placental stage, or imately 9 months and is followed by childbirth afterbirth. Up to the third month of pregnancy, birth when the uterine contractions discharge the the product of conception is referred to as the placenta from the uterus. From the third month to the time of birth, the unborn offspring is referred to as the fetus. Menopause Pregnancy also causes enlargement of the breasts, sometimes to the point of pain. Many Menopause is cessation of ovarian activity and other changes occur throughout the body to diminished hormone production that occurs at accommodate the development and birth of the about age 50. Toward the end of gestation, the myometri- absence of menses (amenorrhea) has persisted for um begins to contract weakly at irregular intervals. Restraint in Many women experience hot flashes and vagi- prescribing estrogens for long periods in all nal drying and thinning (vaginal atrophy) as menopausal women arises from concern that estrogen levels fall. This diagnostic procedure helps identify many Pathology pelvic abnormalities and diseases. Cytological and Many female reproductive disorders are caused by bacteriological specimens are usually obtained at infection, injury, or hormonal dysfunction. Obstetrics is the branch of and discharge are signs and symptoms commonly medicine that manages the health of a woman and associated with sexually transmitted diseases and her fetus during pregnancy, childbirth, and the must not be ignored. Because of the obvious overlap female reproductive system are related to hormonal between gynecology and obstetrics, many practices dysfunction that may cause menstrual disorders. The physician who simul- As a preventive measure, a pelvic examination taneously practices these specialties is called an should be performed regularly throughout life. Pathology 357 Connecting Body Systems–Female Reproductive System The main function of the female reproductive system is to provide structures that support fertil- ization and development of offspring. Should these structures be excised, childbearing would no longer be possible and the female production system would lose important functions. In other words, the female reproductive system depends on the other systems to support its functions, but only provides very limited sup- port to the functions of other body systems. Blood, lymph, and immune Integumentary • Female immune system has special mecha- • Female hormones affect growth and distri- nisms to inhibit its attack on sperm cells. Cardiovascular Musculoskeletal • Estrogens lower blood cholesterol levels • Estrogen influences muscle development and promote cardiovascular health in pre- and size. Endocrine • Estrogens provide antioxidants that have a • Estrogens produce hormones that provide neuroprotective function. Respiratory • Estrogens assist in the production of • Sexual arousal and pregnancy produce human chorion gonadotropin hormone changes in rate and depth of breathing. Genitourinary • The female reproductive system provides the ovum needed to make fertilization by sperm possible. The female hormone estrogen is used to treat dysmenorrhea and also to regulate men- Menstrual disorders are usually caused by hor- strual abnormalities. Metrorrhagia is probably the ders as anemia, fatigue, diabetes, and tubercu- most significant form of menstrual disorder. The ectopic tissue is usually der with signs and symptoms that range confined to the pelvic area but may appear any- from complaints of headache and fatigue to where in the abdominopelvic cavity. Like normal mood changes, anxiety, depression, uncon- endometrial tissue, the ectopic endometrium trolled crying spells, and water retention. Simple changes in behavior, such may be confined to a single organ or it may involve as an increase in exercise and a reduction all the internal reproductive organs. The disease- in caffeine, salt, and alcohol use, may producing organisms (pathogens) generally be beneficial. As Candidiasis, also called moniliasis, is caused by an ascending infection, the pathogens spread from Candida albicans, a yeast that is present as part of the vagina and cervix to the upper structures of the the normal flora of the vagina. The use of in scarring of the narrow fallopian tubes and the antibiotics may also disrupt the normal balance of ovaries, causing sterility. The widespread infection microorganisms in the vagina by destroying of the reproductive structures can also lead to fatal “friendly bacteria,” thus allowing the overpopula- septicemia. Antifungal agents (mycostatics) that have an internal diameter slightly larger than the suppress the growth of fungi are used to treat this width of a human hair, the scarring and closure of disease.

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Dennis tightly grips the pan over the stove discount 5mg prednisone visa, watch- ing the color of the meat carefully buy prednisone 5 mg amex. He frets that the meat is too tough and that the vegetables look soggy from overcooking. The stress is contagious, and by the time the company arrives, Linda shares his worries. Almost every time that he and Linda entertain, Dennis believes that the food they prepare will be terrible, their guests will be horrified, and he’ll be humiliated. Naturally, he answers the reassessment of risk questions and starts to change his anxious thoughts. In doing so, Dennis comes to realize that he and his wife have never actu- ally ruined a dinner, although he has predicted it numerous times before. Furthermore, he tested his second prediction that his guests would feel hor- rified if the dinner did turn out badly. He recalled that one time he and Linda attended a barbeque where the meat was burned to the extent that it was inedible. Everyone expressed genuine sympathy and shared stories about their own cooking disasters. They ended up ordering pizza and considered it one of the more enjoyable evenings they’d spent in a long time. Deconstructing worrisome scenarios Even faced with the evidence of the unlikelihood of the events you fear happening, you may be thinking that bad things still do, in fact, happen. But you may still be stuck with the what-if worry — what if your concern truly happens? First we show you how to cope with smaller, every- day worries, and then we address worst-case scenarios. In other words, outcomes that, while unpleasant, Chapter 5: Becoming a Thought Detective 79 hardly qualify as life threatening. Nevertheless, these small scenarios manage to generate remarkable amounts of stress, apprehension, and worry. When he walks into a crowd, he feels as though a spotlight has turned his way and everyone in the room is star- ing at him. He imagines that people not only focus on him but that they also judge him negatively. Sammy obsesses over the idea that he’ll lose control and have to run away from wherever he is. If he’s sitting in a classroom, he wonders whether he’ll get so anxious that he’ll have to leave, and of course, he assumes everyone will know why he left and think something is terribly wrong with him. If he’s at a crowded shopping mall, he’s afraid he’ll “lose it” and start screaming and running out of control. She feels pres- sure in her chest when each deadline approaches and dreads the day when she fails to get her story in on time. Making matters worse, she sometimes has writer’s block and can’t think of the next word to type for 15 or 20 minutes; all the while, the clock advances and the deadline nears. She’s seen colleagues lose their jobs when they consistently failed to reach their deadlines, and she fears meeting the same fate one day. They can’t imagine the horror of dealing with the possibility of their fears coming true. But, more importantly, they worry about events that happen all the time and that people manage to cope with when they do. Even if a few rude people laughed at Gerald, most would forget the incident and certainly wouldn’t view Gerald any differently. He worries that he’ll have to run from wherever he is and look foolish in doing so. Whether you experience small- or medium-sized worries (small- or medium- potato scenarios), you can use the following coping questions to discover your true ability to cope. Carol, who worried about losing her job, turns to these questions to help her come to terms with her fears. This first question doesn’t help me dis- cover any better ways of coping, but it does help me see the possibility that I’ve been overestimating the risks of losing my job. If I did lose my job, I’d probably have some financial problems for a while, but I’m sure I could find another job. Chapter 5: Becoming a Thought Detective 81 When I think about it, I really sort of hate these daily deadlines at the newspaper. What with the shortage of teachers right now, I could always teach high school English and have summers off.

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Breathing deeply will fully expand the lungs and allow for easier breath movements prednisone 5 mg overnight delivery. Emphasize the exhalation or out-breath until there’s no more air left to breathe out generic 20mg prednisone otc. Allow yourself to rest in the space between the end of the exhalation and the next inhalation, until your body spontaneously starts the next inhalation. Just experience what it feels like to allow yourself to be moved by the body as it breathes in and out automatically. Focus attention at the spot that you’ve selected in your body (your concentration point), such as at your nostrils, in your abdomen, or chest. You are not consciously controlling your breathing after your first five deep breaths. Notice the physical sensation of the breath as it moves back and forth past your concentration point. There are several techniques that you can use to maintain your concentration on your breath: • Focus your attention on the qualities of the breath as it moves past your place of concentration. Can you bring the same focus and interest to your breath that you bring to your object of passion? The pause between the end of exhalation and the beginning of the inhalation is the most obvious part of the complete breath-cycle. Rest your awareness in the stillness and silence of this pause at your concentration point. Notice what this pause, where there is no movement, feels like at the spot that you’ve chosen as your concentration point. This stillness will give you a taste of what your mind can be like when it’s silent and still. Specifically bring your attention to the point where the lungs start to move out of the pause between inhalation and exhalation to counteract this tendency. Counting your breaths is another excellent way to maintain your concentration on the breath. Count your in and out-breath cycles from one to ten and then back down again counting from ten to one. Keep counting until you feel that your concentration is solid and then stop counting as you continue to focus on your breathing. Sometimes you might find yourself having to count throughout the entire meditation. The counting should just be in the background and should not be the focus of your concentration. If you’re more attuned to your sense of hearing, you may also use the sound of your breath as it moves in and out as your concentration point. Don’t be surprised or upset if you find that you get caught up in thoughts, emotions and physical sensations. Once you become aware that you’re no longer focused on your breathing, just bring your attention back to your breath. Bring awareness to the thought, emotion or sensation without judgment and reactivity. When a strong thought, emotion, or physical sensation arises, label it with terms such as “thinking,” “sadness,” “anger,” “twisting feeling,” “burning sensation” etc. Try to experience the physicality of the thought or emotion, and then bring yourself back to focusing on your breath. Vipassana Meditation Another form of meditation is called Vipassana or Insight Meditation. In this technique, you’re resting in the awareness of whatever presents itself instead of trying to focus on one specific object such as Meditation: Sitting in Stillness • 119 your breath. You are observing everything that’s going on mentally and physically, without trying to change anything. If there’s a thought or emotion that pops up, rest in the awareness of that thought or emotion. Whatever the dominant sensation is, relax and focus on it until the next sensation comes along. In the beginning, it can be helpful to label each sensation as it emerges into your conscious awareness. If your mind is resting too much in fantasy, it may help to focus once again on your breathing until your mind is stabilized again. This is a wonderful way to practice a mindfulness of all sensations and to see the impermanence of all experience.

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I will just rest in the knowledge that the mental state that I’m experiencing is an illusion of the mind prednisone 5mg with visa. As the last important step in your integrated practice generic prednisone 40 mg with visa, I want you to consider how you act toward others. The question is whether this is a dominant motivation in how you behave, or whether a more universal, compassionate, connected perspective dictates your behaviour. As you start to see the illusory nature of how the mind constructs its suffering, based on the conditioned reality of the inner child, there’s less to defend and your heart can open. Some Imight define happiness as having more things, but for me, it’s being able to be present for whatever my mind poses to me, without automatically and unconsciously reacting in a fearful, angry or anxious way. I want to be present from an openness of heart that doesn’t need to defend my ego or my inner child. I have explored many different spiritual and psychological traditions in my own personal quest to find greater happiness. I have found that the ability to have an inner-child dialogue, as a way to understand the core motivation for how my mind works, along with the ability to hold the experience mindfully, to be complementary and transformative techniques. I encourage you to view each moment of awareness, whether it’s perceived to be good or bad, as a gift. Every moment of mindfulness brings you a step closer to freedom from stress and suffering. The goal is to bring awareness to the inner child 233 234 • Mindfulness Medication and hold it with the compassion and spaciousness of mindfulness. Our minds are capable of being angry, sad or happy and we identify with and then tend to become those emotional and mental states. One leads to stress and suffering and the other to an open acceptance, without the ownership and grief, of whatever is currently happening. I believe that it’s because we’re not aware that we can choose to operate from a different perspective. We haven’t learned that we can use mindfulness and inner-child dialogue to deal with the unconscious, conditioned, coping strategies of the wounded inner child. Freedom from stress ultimately comes from observing that suffering is really a mental construction, and that means you’re free to change it. I have tried to outline some practical approaches to lasting stress reduction so that, at the end of the day, you have some excellent techniques to work with. However, you may have experienced significant trauma in your life and it’s important to seek additional professional help under those circumstances. Even with all the work we do, we will always carry the legacies of our childhood scars. Hopefully, what you can expect is that, although you may never be free from your childhood memories and their effects, you will have learned ways to cope. You’ll have learned to be free to have had those earlier experiences without them seriously interfering with your ability to enjoy life now. The beautiful union of mindfully observing the inner-child experience and using inquiry and inner-child dialogue to reframe it, allows for insight, wisdom and finally freedom, from the automatic and often stressful functioning of the mind. Some Final Thoughts • 235 I wish you well and I hope that, in some way, this book has been of value to you. It’s a very liberating experience to try to understand our minds and how we operate in this world. Dancing with life: Buddhist insights for finding meaning and joy in the face of suffering. The art and science of mindfulness: Integrating mindfulness into psychology and the helping professions (1st edition). Index A Belief systems (continued) Abandonment, 50 choices, 92 – 93 Acceptance, 46 – 47 comparisons with, 46 Adrenaline, 8 core wounding, 160 – 162, 226 Adult voice, 202 – 204 “I” concept, 150 – 151 Affirmations, 200 – 201, 229, 231 impact of, 182 – 189 Alarm reaction, 37 inner-child dialogue, 9, 51, 165, Autonomic physical responses, 7 – 9, 171 – 182, 197 – 199, 206 – 207, 64 – 66 227 – 229, 231 Awareness inquiry, 9 being in the moment, 126 – 129, 232 mindfulness, 86 – 91 body scan, 35 – 37, 73 – 77, 78, 115, perspective, 135 – 138 131 practical exercises, 30 – 31 breathing, 56 – 60, 72 – 73, 98 – 99 reframing of, 197 – 199, 207, 228 – 229, choices, 92 – 93 231 emotions, 52 – 53 source of, 28 – 30, 150 “I” concept, 149 – 150 thoughts, 23 – 26, 50 – 51, 92 – 93, 232 Inner-Child Dialogue, 205, 228, truth of, 27 – 28 233 – 234 validity of, 178 – 182, 189, 227 labeling, 45 – 46, 94, 97, 100 – 101, See also Thoughts 126,221 Body. See Physical sensations mindfulness, 42 – 45, 49, 52 – 53, 70, Bowel obstruction, 5 94 – 95, 97 – 98, 221 – 222 Breathing pain, 81 – 83 about, 55 – 56 physical sensations, 35 – 37, 70 – 73, awareness, 56 – 60, 98 – 99 223 – 224, 230 breathing calmly, 60 – 62 physical tension, 72 – 73 diaphragmatic breathing, 62 – 64 practical exercises, 95 exhalation, 64 – 67 progressive muscle relaxation, meditation, 116 – 118, 122 77 – 81 mindfulness, 98 – 99, 130, 223 – 224 stress management techniques, mouth breathing, 60 230 – 232 nose breathing, 60 physical tension, 72 – 73 posture, 61 B practical exercises, 67 Belief systems present moment, 58 abandonment, 50 steps of, 56 – 67 about, 23 stress, 55, 62, 223 – 224, 230 changes in, 26 – 27 Butterfly exercise, 110 239 240 • Mindfulness Medication C Emotions (continued) Child-parent relationship, 190 – 193 non-attachment, 47 – 48 Choices, 92 – 93 practical exercises, 34, 95 Comparing mind, 89 – 91 repression of, 184 Compassion, 49, 137 – 138, 166, 226 thoughts, 33 Concentration Empathy being in the moment, 127 inner-child dialogue, 204 – 209, Concentration Practice, 114 – 115 226, 228 – 229 Connection, 99, 225 – 226, 230 for other people, 213 – 217 Core feelings, 175 – 176 Engagement, 169 Core wounding, 160 – 162, 173 – 174, Environment 200 – 201, 213 – 217, 226 environmental cues, 129 – 130 Cortisol, 8 for meditation, 114 Crohn’s disease, 5 – 6 need to control, 173 Equanimity, 47, 145 – 146 Exercises. See Inner-Child Dialogue Diaphragmatic breathing, 62 – 64 Digestive problems, 5 – 6, 8 F Dominant words, 139 – 140 Facebook, 129 Doubt, 123 Fatigue, 8 Fear, 161, 232 Feed the Fire, 140 – 141 E Feelings. See Emotions Early child-parent relationship, Fight or flight response, 37 190 – 193 Flexibility, 110 Eating Mindfully, 131 – 132 Emotions about, 33 G adult responses, 203 Goals, 233 awareness, 52 – 53 Gratitude, 128 compassion, 137 – 138, 166 core feelings, 175 – 176 core wounding, 160 – 162, 173 – 174, H 200 – 201, 213 – 217, 226 Happiness, 233 expressed feelings, 175 – 176 Hormones, 8, 37 – 38 fear, 161, 232 Human nature, 146, 234 gratitude, 128 Hypervigilance, 35 – 37 inner-child dialogue, 175 – 176, 205 – 206 joy, 127 – 128 I labeling, 45 – 46, 94, 97, 100 – 101, “I” concept 126,221 awareness, 149 – 150 mindfulness, 42 – 45, 99 judgments, 150 – 151 Index • 241 “I” concept (continued) Inquiry practical exercises, 155 – 156 adult voice, 202 – 204 separation, 153 – 155 belief systems, 9, 226 stress management, 151 – 152 early child – parent relationship, Illness. See Physical sensations eating mindfully, 131 – 132 Separation, 153 – 156, 168 – 169 emotions, 34, 95 Showering Mindfully, 132 – 133 “I” concept, 155 – 156 Sleepiness, 121 – 122 inner-child dialogue, 163, 194, Slowing down, 127 209 – 211 Smiling, 129 labeling, 100 – 101 Social media, 129 meditation, 123 Stillness, 93 – 94, 128 Mindfulness, 53 – 54, 95, 99 – 101, Stories. See Thoughts 131 – 133 Stress perspective, 137 – 138 about, 6 physical sensations, 40 autonomic responses, 7 – 9 progressive muscle relaxation, breathing, 55, 62, 98 77 – 81 human nature, 146 showering Mindfully, 132 – 133 hypervigilance, 35 – 37 stress management techniques, 10, interpretation, 231 – 232 147 medical problems, 1 – 2, 5 – 6, thoughts, 23 – 26 38 – 40 Present moment mindfulness, 219 – 220 being in the moment, 126 – 129, 232 pain, 81 breathing, 58 stress response, 37 – 40, 69 happiness, 233 thoughts, 11, 17, 231 – 232 mindfulness, 52, 125 – 126 Stress management thoughts, 15 – 16 about, 41 Preventive measures, 2 – 3 awareness, 229 – 230 Progressive muscle relaxation, 77 – 81 breathing, 223 – 224, 230 Psychological responses, 7 – 9 connection, 230 dominant words, 139 – 140 equanimity, 145 – 146 Q Feed the Fire, 140 – 141 Quietness, 93 – 94, 128 “I” concept, 151 – 152 inner-child dialogue, 230 – 231 intent behind behaviour, 145 R mindfulness, 229 – 232 Refocusing, 139 practical exercises, 10, 147 Reframing, 141 – 144, 154 – 155, 197 – 199, refocusing thoughts, 139 207, 228 – 229, 231 reframing, 141 – 144, 154 – 155 Repetitive thoughts, 43 rephrasing questions, 146 what’s next? See Stress 91 – 92, 99 management pain, 82 Thoughts permanence of, 16 – 17 about, 12 – 14, 94, 234 practical exercises, 20 amounts of, 11 – 12 present moment, 15 – 16 choices, 92 – 93 repetitive thoughts, 43 comparing mind, 89 – 91 source of, 18 – 20, 50, 85 – 86 connection, 225 – 226 stress, 11, 42, 229, 231 – 232 distraction of, 14 – 15 See also belief systems emotions, 33 – 34 emptiness of, 51 V judgmental statements, 88 – 89, 226 Vipassana Meditation, 118 – 119 labeling, 45 – 46, 94, 97, 100 – 101, 126,221 W letting go, 50, 91 – 92, 221, 225, 227, Walking meditation, 119 – 120 230 What’s next?

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