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By H. Kor-Shach. Alderson-Broaddus College.

Recall the available family Planning service outlets in Ethiopia and tell the activities at each level? List at least three side effects and problems associated with each of the following contraceptive methods: 69 Family Health a discount sildenafil 50 mg with mastercard. Therefore generic sildenafil 50 mg visa, the child should be urgently referred to the next higher health facility after undertaking some physical examinations. Before sending the child to the next health facility, a reference should be made to the drug administration manual on how we administer, any type of drug. Children can die due to shortage of oxygen or due to the spread of the bacteria to all part of the body when they are caught with bacteria pneumonia. But, since few seriously sick children require medicine (antibiotics), the health extension workers can identify such patients using two indicative signs. Examination of a child with cough or breathing problem - Asking the mother for how long the child has cough or breathing problem. A child who has cough or breathing problem for more than 30 days could be suggestive for asthma, whooping cough or another problem and therefore shall be referred to the next health facility for further examination. Age Fast breathing 2-12 months 50 or more breathings/ minute 12 months- 5 years 40 or more breathings/ minute If we know the child is breathing fast through counting and checking against the above values, then we can say that the child has pneumonia. If no sign of No pneumonia, - Refer child to next pneumonia or simple coughs or health facility if cough serious diseases can be common has been for more than cold. Since the condition of a child with simple cough or common cold can worsen, strong advice can be given to take the child to a health facility when the following signs are observed - high fever - failing to drink or breast feed - dizziness or unconscious - fast breathing Diarrhoea 76 Family Health Diarrhea is defined as a passage of three or more loose or watery stools in a 24 hours period. Types of Diarrhea - Diarrhea that is watery, acute and lasts less than 14 days is called acute diarrhea. Examination of a child with diarrhea - Ask the duration of the diarrhea - Ask if the diarrhea is bloody (has blood in stool) or watery - Check if there is body dehydration 77 Family Health Signs and degrees of dehydration Signs of dehydration Degree of Actions to be taken dehydration If two out of the following Severe dehydration - Urgently refer to next signs are present, they health facility indicate the degree of body - If he can, refer him with dehydration. Some of these fluids are breast milk, boiled cows milk, gruel, soup, curd milk, whey, rice water, fruit juice and clean water. The purpose of giving extra fluid to the child is to replace the fluid that has been lost by the diarrhea and to prevent further dehydration. But, if families cannot get these food items, they can give any food that is available at home with a quantity more than before. The purpose of providing the child with an additional quantity of food is to replace the nutrients that have been lost due to the diarrhea and to prevent malnutrition. Methods of preventing diarrheal diseases Breast feeding Children 4-6 months have to stay only on breast feeding. Breast feeding means:- the child has to be fed on his mothers breast milk without giving him other fluids like water, fruit juice or cows and powder milk. A child on breast milk only has less chance of having diarrheal diseases than a child on a half breast feeding or bottle feeding. The reasons are;- - By breast feeding it is possible to avoid contaminated bottles, bottle nipples and powder milks. Supplementary foods Supplementary foods are soft and mashed foods, such as peas and beans, milk products, eggs, meat, fish, fruits, green vegetables. Activities that should be undertaken by family members with regard to supplementary food:- 82 Family Health - Washing hands with soap and water before starting the preparation of food and feeding of the child. Washing hands Mothers should wash their hands: - after cleaning the child that has passed stool and disposing the stool into an appropriate a toilet - after using the toilet - before cooking/ preparing food - before eating food - before feeding the child If the child feeds himself/herself, his/her hands should be washed. High Malaria Risks areas Sign Types of Disease Action - If there is any sign of Very severe febrile Immediately dangerous disease disease refer to the next -Has meningismus health facility (stiff neck) If he had fever, he is Malaria Treat with febrile now or has a Artemeth 0 temperature of 37. The antibodies that children get from their mothers during pregnancy can protect them from measles infections until they are six months old. If a patient is known to have measles currently or had in the last three months, it is essential to check him for any complications. The 87 Family Health complications are extensive ulceration of the mouth, and white patches on the eyelid. If there are other signs of any dangerous diseases, he should immediately be referred to the next health facility. Administration of vitamin A If the child has measles, it is necessary to give him vitamin A three times as follows:- - the first vitamin A today - the second vitamin A tomorrow - the third vitamin A after a month If the child has severe malnutrition or severe measles or persistent diarrhea with dehydration, he should be immediately referred to the higher health facility. With this it is possible to prevent the eye disease which occurs due to measles and other health problems. In addition to this, malnutrition and other related diseases were found to be causes for the deaths of 60% of children under the age of 5 years. Therefore, any child, when visited by health extension worker, should be checked for signs of malnutrition and anemia. Causes and signs of malnutrition Malnutrition occurs when a child does not get the necessary energy giving and body building foods.

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This enzyme transfers the fatty acid moiety from the lecithin to the cholesterol to form cholesterol ester purchase 100mg sildenafil with mastercard. A lecithinase in cobra venom readily split off an unsaturated fatty acid in lecithin producing “lysolecithin” sildenafil 100mg line. Lecithinase from snake venom hydrolyses cephalins to lysocephalins which are similar to the formation of lysolecithin from lecithin. Atherosclerosis is manifested by deposition of cholesterol and other lipids on the inner walls of blood vessels. This leads to occlusion of blood vessels in the heart and the brain, resulting in increased blood pressure, strokes and heart attacks. The causative factors for atherosclerosis include, smoking, obesity, lack of physical exercise, emotional stress and high fat diet. Though many hypolipidemic drugs are commercially available to control the cholesterol levels, they often elicit harmful side effects. Nucleic acids are present both in the free state as well as conjucated with proteins (Nucleoproteins). Deoxyribonucleic acid Structural Components of Nucleic acids Components Ribonucleic acid Deoxyribonucleic acid Acid Phosphoric acid Phosphoric acid Pentose Sugar D-ribose D-2 deoxy ribose Nitrogen Bases i. It contains 3 monovalent 3 4 hydroxyl groups and a divalent oxygen atom, all linked to a pentavalent phosphorus atom. One possesses D-2-deoxyribose, (deoxyribonucleic acid) while the other contains D-ribose (hence called ribonucleic 89 acid). Purine Bases These are all derived from their parent compound purine, which contains a six membered pyrimidine ring fused to the 5 membered imidazole ring, the purine derivatives found in nucleic acids are adenine and guanine. They are 5 methylcytosine, N4 acetyl cytosine, N6 methyladenine, N6, N6 dimethyladenine and pseudouracil etc. This enzyme catalyses the polymerization of mononucleotides to 91 polynucleotides, which needs the following for its action. A template strand dictates the synthesis of the new daughter strand and sequence of the template strand determines the addition of the nucleotides. The results show that they form bands with intermediate density alone in the frst generation, which confrms the semiconservative model of replication. Exonucleases are the nucleases that attack only the internucleotide bonds located at the ends of the nucleic acid. Endonucleases are the nucleases that attack only the internucleotide bonds located throughout the length of the nucleic acid chain (in the middle). Nucleotidases (Phosphatases) These enzymes hydrolyse the nucleotides to the corresponding nucleosides and inorganic phosphate molecules. Phosphatase Nucleotides Nucleoside + Phosphate Nucleosidases (Nucleoside phosphorylase) The nucleosides obtained above either absorbed or degraded into bases and sugars by nucleosidases. Mechanism Transcription involves 3 stages i) Initiation ii) Elongation iii) Termination Three phases of transcription 1. This complex enzyme, called the holoenzyme is needed to initiate transcription since the s factor is essential for recognition of the promoter. It is common for prokaryotes to have several s factors that recognize different types of promoter (in E. The holoenzyme binds to a promoter region about 40-60 bp in size and then initiates transcription a short distance downstream (i. With in the promoter lie two 6 bp sequences that are particularly important for promoter function and which are therefore highly conserved between species. Using the convention of calling the frst nucleotide of a transcribed sequence as +1, there 2 promoter elements 98 lie at position -10 and -35, that is about 10 and 35 bp respectively, downstream of where transcription will begin. The most common termination signal is a G ≡ C rich region is a palindrome, followed by an A = T rich sequence. Those that lack such a structure require an additional protein, called rho protein (r) to help recognize the termination site and stop transcription. The product of transcription in eukarryotes are called as primary transcripts and they undergo modifcation by a process called post transcriptional modifcation. Okasaki fragments are present in i) both the parental strands ii) both the daughter strands iii) leading strand iv) lagging strand c. G-C rich region followed by A-T rich region is a signal for i) initiation ii) elongation iii) termination iv) primer formation d. One among the following is not a modifed base i) pseudo uridine ii) isopentyl adenine iii) methyl guanosine iv) deoxy thymine e. The metabolism of our body comprises two major balanced activities: anabolism (synthesis) and catabolism (degradation). Whether the metabolic changes are exergonic or endergonic, most of them have to be catalysed by enzymes.

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