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Liver The liver is responsible for secreting at least four important hormones or hormone precursors: insulin-like growth factor (somatomedin) cheap cialis super active 20 mg, angiotensinogen 20 mg cialis super active with mastercard, thrombopoetin, and hepcidin. Insulin-like growth factor-1 is the immediate stimulus for growth in the body, especially of the bones. Hepcidins block the release of iron from cells in the body, helping to regulate iron homeostasis in our body fluids. The endocrine glands that produce the steroid hormones, such as the gonads and adrenal cortex, arise from the mesoderm. In contrast, endocrine glands that arise from the endoderm and ectoderm produce the amine, peptide, and protein hormones. The pituitary gland arises from two distinct areas of the ectoderm: the anterior pituitary gland arises from the oral ectoderm, whereas the posterior pituitary gland arises from the neural ectoderm at the base of the hypothalamus. The two structures of the adrenal glands arise from two different germ layers: the adrenal cortex from the mesoderm and the adrenal medulla from ectoderm neural cells. The endoderm gives rise to the thyroid and parathyroid glands, as well as the pancreas and the thymus. As the body ages, changes occur that affect the endocrine system, sometimes altering the production, secretion, and catabolism of hormones. For example, the structure of the anterior pituitary gland changes as vascularization decreases and the connective tissue content increases with increasing age. For example, the amount of human growth hormone that is produced declines with age, resulting in the reduced muscle mass commonly observed in the elderly. The adrenal glands also undergo changes as the body ages; as fibrous tissue increases, the production of cortisol and aldosterone decreases. Interestingly, the production and secretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine remain normal throughout the aging process. A well-known example of the aging process affecting an endocrine gland is menopause and the decline of ovarian function. With increasing age, the ovaries decrease in both size and weight and become progressively less sensitive to gonadotropins. This gradually causes a decrease in estrogen and progesterone levels, leading to menopause and the inability to reproduce. Testosterone levels also decline with age, a condition called andropause (or viropause); however, this decline is much less dramatic than the decline of estrogens in women, and much more gradual, rarely affecting sperm production until very old age. Although this means that males maintain their ability to father children for decades longer than females, the quantity, quality, and motility of their sperm is often reduced. As the body ages, the thyroid gland produces less of the thyroid hormones, causing a gradual decrease in the basal metabolic rate. This may be because of reduced dietary calcium levels, causing a compensatory increase in parathyroid hormone. Increasing age also affects glucose metabolism, as blood glucose levels spike more rapidly and take longer to return to normal in the elderly. In addition, increasing glucose intolerance may occur because of a gradual decline in cellular insulin sensitivity. Neural communication includes both electrical and chemical signaling between neurons and target cells. Endocrine communication involves chemical signaling via the release of hormones into the extracellular fluid. From there, hormones diffuse into the bloodstream and may travel to distant body regions, where they elicit a response in target cells. Many organs of the body with other primary functions—such as the heart, stomach, and kidneys—also have hormone-secreting cells. Hydrophobic hormones are able to diffuse through the membrane and interact with an intracellular receptor. These are typically associated with a G protein, which becomes activated when the hormone binds the receptor. Second messenger systems greatly amplify the hormone signal, creating a broader, more efficient, and faster response. Hormonal stimuli are changes in hormone levels that initiate or inhibit the secretion of another hormone. Finally, a neural stimulus occurs when a nerve impulse prompts the secretion or inhibition of a hormone. The hypothalamus and the pituitary gland are connected by a structure called the infundibulum, which contains vasculature and nerve axons. The anterior lobe is connected to the hypothalamus by vasculature in the infundibulum and produces and secretes six hormones. They also contribute to protein synthesis and the normal growth and development of body tissues, including maturation of the nervous system, and they increase the body’s sensitivity to catecholamines.

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Large part of physiology is concerned with regulation mechanisms that act to maintain the constancy of the internal environment buy cialis super active 20 mg with mastercard. The structure and chemical 6 reactions of living organisms are sensitive to the chemical and physical conditions within and around cells discount cialis super active 20mg online. For multicellular organisms, the surrounding fluid is the interstitial fluid: a component of the extracellular fluid. The intracellular fluid has a high concentration of potassium and low concentration of + - ++ + Na Cl , Mg , and Ca. Body temperature is very crucial for intracellular physiological processes; enzymatic events need a very narrow range of temperature, within the physiological range of temperature compatible with life, cooler temperature favors preservations of cellular structure but slows the rate of chemical reactions carried out by cells. The higher temperature enhances chemical reactions, but may also disrupt the structure of the proteins and other macromolecules within cells. The production of energy for cellular activities requires oxygen and nutrients reaching the cell interior and carbon dioxide and other chemical wastes products be transferred to the environment. Extensive exchange between cells and immediate surroundings, interstitial fluid, occurs by diffusion based on a concentration gradient. Diffusion causes adequate movement of dissolved nutrients, gases and metabolic end products to meet the active needs of the cell, if the distance is short. For the efficiency of diffusion, the diameter of individual cells is usually not more than a few tenths of a millimeter. In the circulatory system, blood rapidly moves between the respiratory system, where gases are exchanged; the kidney where wastes and excess of fluid and solutes are excreted; and the digestive system where nutrients are absorbed. These substances are rapidly transported by blood flow overcoming the diffusion limit on large body size. By maintaining a relatively constant internal environment, multicellular organisms are able to live freely in changing external environment. Responses tend to oppose the change and restore the variable to its set point value. All organ systems have regulatory processes for maintaining a delicate balance in a dynamic steady state. If external environment stresses are very severe beyond the homeostatic processes, the balance can be overwhelmed. Prolonged exposure to cold may lead to an intolerable reduction in the body temperature. Exercise in very hot environment, may result in fluid depletion and an increase in the core temperature, resulting in heat stroke. The cells are much adapted to a regulated core temperature that even a few degree of temperature variations may have fatal consequences. Without clothes and proper protection humans can tolerate only a narrow differences between body temperature and environmental temperature. Factors homeostatically maintained include: • Concentration of nutrient molecules • Concentration of oxygen and carbondioxide • Concentration of waste products • pH • Temperature • Concentration of water, salt, and other electrolytes • Volume (fluids), osmolality, and pressure Homeostasis is essential for survival of cells in that : • Cells need homeostasis for their own survival and for performing specialized function essential to survival of the whole body. Nervous System: Information from the external environment relayed through the nervous system. Nervous system acts through electrical signals to control rapid responses for higher functions e. Digestive system: Obtains nutrients, water and electrolytes from the external environment and transfers them into the plasma; eliminates undigested food residues to the external environment Muscular and Skeletal system: Supports and protects body parts and allows body movements; heat generated by muscular contraction are important in temperature regulation; calcium is stored in the bones Immune system: Defense against foreign invaders and cancer cells; paves way for tissue repair Integumentary system: 9 keeps internal fluids in and foreign materials out serves as a protective barrier between the external environment and the remainder of the body; the sweat glands and adjustment in blood flow are important in temperature regulation Cellular physiology Cells are the link between molecules and human. They have many molecules in a very complex organization and have the feature of interaction and represent a living entity. Cells are the living building blocks for the immense multicellular complicated whole body. Many cells share some common features despite diverse structure and functional specialization. Most cells have 3 subdivisions: the plasma membrane, the nucleus, and the cytoplasm. Plasma membrane/cell membrane: It is very thin membrane structure that enclose each cell, separating the cell’s contents from the surrounding. The nucleus: This is distinctly oval or spherical shaped central structure surrounded by a double-layered membrane. By monitoring these protein synthesis activity, the nucleus indirectly governs most cellular activities and serves as the cell’s master. The Cytoplasm: The cytosol is the material of cell interior not occupied by the nucleus, containing a number of distinct, highly organized membrane-enclosed structures- the organelles- dispersed within a complex jelly – like marrow called the ‘cytosol’. All cells contain six main types of organelles- the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complex, lysosomes, peroxisomes, mitochondria, and vacules. They are similar in all cells, but with some variations depending on the cell specialization. Each organelle is a separate compartment, containing different chemically setting for fulfilling a partial or cellular function. The compositions of a typical cell are in the center and the detailed structure of organelles is shown around the outside.

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A gas will move from an area where its partial pressure is higher to an area where its partial pressure is lower cialis super active 20mg cheap. In addition 20mg cialis super active mastercard, the greater the partial pressure difference between the two areas, the more rapid is the movement of gases. Solubility of Gases in Liquids Henry’s law describes the behavior of gases when they come into contact with a liquid, such as blood. Henry’s law states that the concentration of gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the solubility and partial pressure of that gas. The greater the partial pressure of the gas, the greater the number of gas molecules that will dissolve in the liquid. The concentration of the gas in a liquid is also dependent on the solubility of the gas in the liquid. For example, although nitrogen is present in the atmosphere, very little nitrogen dissolves into the blood, because the solubility of nitrogen in blood is very low. The exception to this occurs in scuba divers; the composition of the compressed air that divers breathe causes nitrogen to have a higher partial pressure than normal, causing it to dissolve in the blood in greater amounts than normal. Too much nitrogen in the bloodstream results in a serious condition that can be fatal if not corrected. In both cases, the relative concentration of gases is nitrogen > oxygen > water vapor > carbon dioxide. Recall that the respiratory system works to humidify incoming air, thereby causing the air present in the alveoli to have a greater amount of water vapor than atmospheric air. In addition, alveolar air contains a greater amount of carbon dioxide and less oxygen than atmospheric air. Both deep and forced breathing cause the alveolar air composition to be changed more rapidly than during quiet breathing. As a result, the partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide change, affecting the diffusion process that moves these materials across the membrane. Composition and Partial Pressures of Alveolar Air Partial pressure Gas Percent of total composition (mm Hg) Nitrogen (N )2 74. Ventilation is the movement of air into and out of the lungs, and perfusion is the flow of blood in the pulmonary capillaries. For gas exchange to be efficient, the volumes involved in ventilation and perfusion should be compatible. However, factors such as regional gravity effects on blood, blocked alveolar ducts, or disease can cause ventilation and perfusion to be imbalanced. The partial pressure of oxygen in alveolar air is about 104 mm Hg, whereas the partial pressure of oxygenated blood in pulmonary veins is about 100 mm Hg. When ventilation is sufficient, oxygen enters the alveoli at a high rate, and the partial pressure of oxygen in the alveoli remains high. Without the large difference in partial pressure between the alveoli and the blood, oxygen does not diffuse efficiently across the respiratory membrane. In cases when ventilation is not sufficient for an alveolus, the body redirects blood flow to alveoli that are receiving sufficient ventilation. This is achieved by constricting the pulmonary arterioles that serves the dysfunctional alveolus, which redirects blood to other alveoli that have sufficient ventilation. At the same time, the pulmonary arterioles that serve alveoli receiving sufficient ventilation vasodilate, which brings in greater blood flow. Factors such as carbon dioxide, oxygen, and pH levels can all serve as stimuli for adjusting blood flow in the capillary networks associated with the alveoli. Ventilation is regulated by the diameter of the airways, whereas perfusion is regulated by the diameter of the blood vessels. The diameter of the bronchioles is sensitive to the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the alveoli. A greater partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the alveoli causes the bronchioles to increase their diameter as will a decreased level of oxygen in the blood supply, allowing carbon dioxide to be exhaled from the body at a greater rate. As mentioned above, a greater partial pressure of oxygen in the alveoli causes the pulmonary arterioles to dilate, increasing blood flow. Gas Exchange Gas exchange occurs at two sites in the body: in the lungs, where oxygen is picked up and carbon dioxide is released at the respiratory membrane, and at the tissues, where oxygen is released and carbon dioxide is picked up. External respiration is the exchange of gases with the external environment, and occurs in the alveoli of the lungs. Internal respiration is the exchange of gases with the internal environment, and occurs in the tissues. The anatomy of the lung maximizes the diffusion of gases: The respiratory membrane is highly permeable to gases; the respiratory and blood capillary membranes are very thin; and there is a large surface area throughout the lungs. Although a small amount of the oxygen is able to dissolve directly into plasma from the alveoli, most of the oxygen is picked up by erythrocytes (red blood cells) and binds to a protein called hemoglobin, a process described later in this chapter. Oxygenated hemoglobin is red, causing the overall appearance of bright red oxygenated blood, which returns to the heart through the pulmonary veins.

Intoxication occurs when a certain amount of a drug is taken and the body is unable to eliminate or transform it cialis super active 20 mg overnight delivery. When a certain amount of a drug is taken and the body is unable to eliminate or transform it order 20 mg cialis super active with mastercard, intoxication occurs. It will have different symptoms depending on the type of substance consumed and will remain until transformed or eliminated by the body. Depending on the amount consumed, the characteristics of the organism at the time and the characteristics of the substance, intoxication can present very serious symptoms, even inducing coma or requiring emergency medical intervention. Regular consumption of cannabis can lead to dependence, such that its abrupt discontinuation can lead to nervousness, insomnia, irritability and depression. The consumption of legal drugs, especially tranquilizers and tobacco, is more common among girls (in the case of tobacco with major differences), while alcohol and all the illegal drugs are consumed more by boys. Dependence is the set of behaviors and reactions including the impulse and need to take the substance on a continuous or regular basis, be it to feel its effects or to avoid the discomfort that the deprivation of the substance produces. This state may or may not be accompanied by tolerance, which would be the progressive adaptation of the body to consumed substances, such that to feel the same effects, it is necessary to increase the intake amount. Activity Summary To end the activity, the session coordinator will conduct a theoretical exposition with the theoretical content presented on the subject. Therefore, parents must know the different types of drugs and their effects in order to give their children clear, reliable, accurate and objective information about them. This information can and should be obtained and updated and contextualized in each country where the program is implemented, so do not add it here. Parental Mediators of Associations between Perceived Authoritative Parenting and Early Adolescent Substance Use. What parents know, how they know it, and several forms of adolescent adjustment: Further evidence for a reinterpretation of monitoring. Patterns of competence and adjustment among adolescents from authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and neglectful families. Consumo de sustancias durante la adolescencia: trayectorias evolutivas y consecuencias para el ajuste psicológico. Outcome, attrition and family/couples treatment for drug abuse: A meta-analysis and review of the controlled and comparative studies. Patterns of Competence and Adjustment Among Adolescents from Authoritative, Authoritarian, Indulgent, and Neglectful Homes: A Replication in a Sample of Serious Juvenile Offenders. Impact of parenting practices on adolescent achievement: Authoritative parenting, school involvement, and encouragement to succeed. Drug consumption, its causes and consequences, is a multifaceted phenomenon that can only be understood if viewed from different perspectives. This course is devoted to a socio-cultural perspective and maintains that a genuine preventive policy cannot treat as abstract the socioeconomic structure in which drug users and non-drug users grow up. The community sphere, along with those of family and school, constitutes one of the principal axes of action for carrying out preventive interventions. Unlike other areas of prevention, community prevention is not addressed to a specific population type. To the contrary, what characterizes community prevention is not the target population or the specific environment where the interventions are realized (family, school, workplace, institutions. In this sense, community prevention chooses its settings and techniques based on stated objectives and the population group to be reached. Community Prevention addresses the problems and needs of an entire community, such as a big city or a small town, or a specific population group, and to do so it moves preventive actions closer to the places that said population frequents (e. In these work areas or settings, strategies and interventions aimed at changing the cultural, physical, social and/or economic environment are developed with the aim of reducing and/or preventing drug use or the harm stemming from it. Community interventions are reciprocal complements to interventions realized in family and school settings. Research results on the effectiveness of 1 Analysis of Drug Use Prevention on a Community-wide Scale prevention programs highlight those programs that assume, in a coordinated manner, activities in all three areas, compared to programs that are realized in one area exclusively. When planning a strategy aimed at reducing drug demand we must bear in mind that people in general and youth in particular, divide their time among these three social settings: family, school or workplace and society. That the intervention will be implemented in a place where the target audience is available and reachable must be taken into account at the moment of designing an intervention. This observation is especially applicable in community prevention, since the public transits freely through different settings, contrary to what happens in school or work environments. An adolescent spends on average seven to eight hours daily (Monday to Saturday) in an education center. In a recent study conducted in 2007 by the authors with a sample of secondary school students, more than half of those aged 14 to 16 report that they spend a lot of time each week in leisure venues and drinking bars. Adolescence is characterized by a sense of rupture with the world established by adults, which until then was assumed to be sole and unquestionable. The natural tendency of adolescents makes them feel the need to question the adult world and differentiate themselves from it.

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